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  • (PDF) Effect of Nozzle Geometry on the Space-Time Emission ...

    The effect of small-sized conical reflectors on the screech emission of supersonic underexpanded jets was studied experimentally. The investigation focused on two closely spaced fully-expanded Mac ...

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  • (PDF) Effect of Nozzle Geometry on a Model ...

    2012-4-10 · of the throat s ection [7]. In this stud y, the effects of nozzle geometry with. varios operating condi tions on the performanc e …

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  • The effect of nozzle geometry on local convective heat ...

    The velocity profile at the jet exit (X/D = 0.1) presents a parabolic shape for the tube and an inverted parabolic shape for the round orifice, while the presence of two shear layers renders the cross-shaped orifice more complex and three-dimensional. Thermal results also show that a round orifice on the hemisphere causes higher heat transfer ...

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  • Effect of axisymmetric sonic nozzle geometry on ...

    The effect of nozzle geometry on sonic line and characteristics of supersonic air jet was studied. Computational fluid dynamics was applied in this study. The axisymmetric nozzle geometries investigated were two different contour converging nozzles, two different conically converging sharp-edged nozzles and a sharp-edged orifice. The results show that the supersonic jet structure, sonic line ...

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  • Effect of nozzle geometry on critical-subcritical flow ...

    Nozzle geometry does have a significant impact of nozzle performance. Effect of single-phase air flow through a nozzle revealed the effect of different nozzle parameters on nozzle performance. A lower diverging angle and no elongated throat gave the best critical pressure ratio and a low pressure drop.

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  • Effect of Nozzle Exit Geometry on the Development of ...

    The mean streamwise velocities on the jet centerline and at positions off-center, corresponding to nozzle edges, are plotted versus the normalized distance measured from the nozzle exit (x/D eq) in Fig. 2.Note that D eq is the same for the three nozzles since it is defined as 4 A/π where A is the nozzle area. No attempt was made to study the jet spread rate and therefore the virtual origin ...

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  • Effect of axisymmetric sonic nozzle geometry on ...

    The effect of nozzle geometry on sonic line and characteristics of supersonic air jet was studied. Computational fluid dynamics was applied in this study. The axisymmetric nozzle geometries investigated were two different contour converging nozzles, two different conically converging sharp-edged nozzles and a sharp-edged orifice. The results show that the supersonic jet structure, sonic line ...

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  • Influence of nozzle geometry on underexpanded axisymmetric ...

    The effect of nozzle geometry on the structure of a supersonic free jet is investigated both experimentally and numerically for three simple nozzle geometries. In the experiments, the relation between the Mach disk height and diameter and the nozzle pressure ratio are investigated using the schlieren method. In contrast to results obtained in previous studies, our experimental results show ...

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  • Effect of the injection-nozzle geometry on the interaction ...

    Effect of the injection-nozzle geometry on the interaction between a gas–liquid jet and a gas–solid fluidized bed. ... Liquid atomization efficiency in open air, spray geometry, and spray stability were also characterized to evaluate their effects on the nozzle spraying performance within the fluidized bed. ...

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  • An Investigation of the Inuence of Nozzle Aspect Ratio on ...

    has tested to some degree, the effect of nozzle geometry [1], effect of nozzle exit turbulence on jet spreading [2], effect of presence/absence of sidewalls [3] and effect of jet exit Reynolds number [4, 5, 6] . However, the inuence of nozzle aspect ratio for a plane jet has yet to be studied systematically. Nozzle aspect ratio, w

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  • Effect of nozzle geometry on critical-subcritical flow ...

    Nozzle geometry does have a significant impact of nozzle performance. Effect of single-phase air flow through a nozzle revealed the effect of different nozzle parameters on nozzle performance. A lower diverging angle and no elongated throat gave the best critical pressure ratio and a low pressure drop.

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  • EFFECTS OF GEOMETRY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SWIRL NOZZLE G ...

    Placing a swirl nozzle composed of a yarn channel and an air-jet nozzle in a traditional ring spinning frame can reduce yarn hairiness. In this study, two types of swirl nozzles, namely, the circular swirl nozzle and the elliptical swirl nozzle, are designed to optimize the inside structure of the swirl nozzle and improve the yarn quality. Yarn performance is evaluated based on the hairiness ...

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  • Effect of Nozzle Geometry on the Microstructure and ...

    In the present work, the effect of nozzle geometry and two spray parameter sets on cavitation erosion resistance are studied for both WC-10Co4Cr and Cr 3 C 2-25NiCr coatings. The reference coatings are produced with gas- and liquid-fuelled HVOF spray processes. The particle temperatures and velocities are measured with a spray sensor.

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  • Effect of jet nozzle geometry on flow and heat transfer ...

    It is presented that the jet nozzle aspect ratio and jet nozzle to chamber cross section area ratio both impose a significant effect on the flow and thermal parameters. The averaged Nusselt number decreases at first and then increases with the increasing jet nozzle aspect ratio, reaching highest when aspect ratio equals to 1.

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  • Effects of nozzle-inlet chamfering on pressure drop and ...

    The effect of changing the nozzle geometry on the pressure drop and local heat transfer distribution in confined air jet impingement on a small heat source was experimentally investigated.

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  • Experimental Study of the Effect of the Expansion Segment ...

    Experimental Study of the Effect of the Expansion Segment Geometry on the Atomization of a Plain-Jet Airblast Atomizer Yi Jin, Kanghong Yao , Xiaomin He , Kai Zhang, and Yunbiao Wang ... The results show that increases in air velocity, air pressure, and air/liquid ratio all tend to pro- ... nozzle geometry is the important factor to spray perfor-

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  • Effect of nozzle structure on coal breakage of SC-CO2 used ...

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) jet is a promising technology for the extraction of coalbed methane. As a key component in the process of jet formation, the nozzle is an essential factor affecting the efficiency with which an SC-CO2 jet breaks coal and rock. The nozzle structure directly affects the energy conversion rate and flow field structure of the jet…

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  • The effect of air swirl profile on the instability of a ...

    E ect of air swirl pro le on viscous jet instability 3 Liquid r Swirling air x a 0 W g U g U l g Figure1.A liquid jet surrounded by swirling air. More importantly, the flow conditions considered in these studies are quite di erent from those involved in practical fuel injection processes of combustion engines, and air swirl and swirl pro le e ...

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  • The Effects of Nozzle Diameter on Impinging Jet Heat ...

    The results show that the local Nusselt numbers increase with the increasing nozzle diameter in the stagnation point region corresponding to 0 ⩽ r d ⩽ 0.5. This may be attributed to an increase in the jet momentum and turbulence intensity level with the larger nozzle diameter, which results in the heat transfer augmentation.

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  • Investigating the effect of hot air polishing parameters ...

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the most additive manufacturing techniques that adopted to produce prototypes and/or final parts, particularly under geometrical complexity restrictions. One of the most challenging aspects of FDM technology is the attainable roughness. In this paper, a hot-air jet …

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  • EFFECTS OF GEOMETRY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SWIRL NOZZLE G ...

    Placing a swirl nozzle composed of a yarn channel and an air-jet nozzle in a traditional ring spinning frame can reduce yarn hairiness. In this study, two types of swirl nozzles, namely, the circular swirl nozzle and the elliptical swirl nozzle, are designed to optimize the inside structure of the swirl nozzle and improve the yarn quality. Yarn performance is evaluated based on the hairiness ...

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  • Effect of Geometry on the Performance of Intermingling Nozzles

    This study investigates the effect of nozzle geometry on the intermingling process. The dimensions of intermingling nozzles with single air inlets extended across the width of a rectangular yam channel are systematically varied. Nozzles …

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  • Influence of tab corner geometry on supersonic jets

    Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Influence of tab corner geometry on supersonic jets Abstract: Purpose-The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of tabs having different ...

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  • Experimental examination of nozzle geometry on water jet ...

    The effect of a nozzle’s internal geometry was studied experimentally to determine the breakup of the emitted water jet when it was injected perpendicularly into a quiescent atmosphere or a subsonic air crossflow. The nozzle’s diameter, nominal surface roughness, length-to-diameter ratio and contraction angle were varied, together with the ...

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  • Simulation of the effect of geometric parameters on ...

    Abstract A realizable k – e turbulence model is employed to study compressible tangentially injected swirling flow in the nozzle of air–jet spinning. The effects of the nozzle geometric parameters (the injection angle, the diameter, number and position of the injector, nozzle length and chamber diameter) on both the flow and yarn properties are investigated.

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  • Influence of liquid hydrophobicity and nozzle passage ...

    workers focused on the influence of the ink-jet print head geometry, the diameter of the nozzle exit, amplitude and frequency of electrically driven signals, and liquid properties, density, viscosity and surface tension on the drop formation, but little is known about the effect of the wetting condition

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  • Effect of a Wedge on Coannular Jet Noise

    2 The effect of the wedge is the focus of the present paper. The wedge cases tried in the UCI experiment were limited. There could be ma ny variations of the wedge geometry, e.g., half -angle, base width relative to nozzle perimeter, shape of the

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  • (PDF) Effect of nozzle arrangement on Venturi scrubber ...

    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1999, 38, 4889-4900 4889 Effect of Nozzle Arrangement on Venturi Scrubber Performance Nochur V. Ananthanarayanan and Shekar Viswanathan1 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10, Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Singapore The effect of nozzle arrangement on flux distribution is studied in a rectangular, pilot-scale ...

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  • Jet-induced lift loss of jet VTOL configurations in ...

    Jet-induced lift losses of jet VTOL configurations for hovering flight out of ground effect have been investigated by using a turbojet engine exhausting through flat square base plate. Several base-plate sizes and nozzle configurations were investigated for a range of engine operating conditions from idle to maximum thrust.

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  • The Effect of Reynolds Number on Jet in Asymmetric Co ...

    3. Results and Discussion. To investigate the effect of initial Re on the jet development, four simulations with different nozzle diameters D j = 0.0012, 0.0015, 0.0018, and 0.0021 m were run with grid 2 based on the grid study results. With the same initial mass flow rate 0.031 kg/s as in the PIV measurement by Larsson et al. [], the jet initial velocities are U j = 27.70, 17.73, 12.31, and 9 ...

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  • The effect of nozzle geometry on the flow characteristics ...

    Results are presented of a wide-ranging investigation of geometry effects on the flow parameters and jet characteristics of nozzles with diameters between 120 and 170 μm. Nozzles with circular cross-section and conical, cone-capillary and capillary axial designs were investigated.

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  • Fluctuating Heat Transfer to an Impinging Air Jet in the ...

    Fluctuating Heat Transfer to an Impinging Air Jet in the Transitional Wall Jet Region ... Baughn et al. [6] present results that show a local heat transfer peak at r/D = 2, for Re = 23000 and H/D = 2. A similar effect was reported by ... R., 1996, “Effect of nozzle geometry on local convective heat transfer to a confined impinging air jet ...

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  • Journal of Fluid Science and Technology

    (a) Nozzle for p1 = 30 MPa (b) Nozzle orifice for p1 = 300 MPa Fig. 2 Nozzle geometry types of nozzle with diamond orifices were used as shown in Fig. 2 (b). Nozzle A is a typical nozzle for a normal water jet in air, i.e., cutting process. In the case of nozzle B, the outlet of the nozzle throat angle was enlarged.

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  • Effect of Nozzle Type and Abrasive on Machinablity in ...

    The results show that the rectangular nozzle can yield a more accurate and efficient machining performance due to reduced flux effect. By contrast, with round nozzle all the cross section profiles of the machined patterns show rounded V-type shape. The rectangular nozzle is able to produce geometry with flat shape.

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  • Experimental and Numerical Study of Jet Mixing from a ...

    The current work expands on the nozzle studies of Papamoschou and Zill [7] and Xiao et al [8] to include the turbulent jet region downstream of the nozzle exit. The purpose of our investigation is twofold: 1) assess experimentally the effects of nozzle parameters (area ratio, pressure ratio) onthe meanflowcharacteristics ofthe jet

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  • Study of the Different Factors That Influence Jet Pump ...

    The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of jet pump. Suction head, driving air pressure and the percentage of the distance between throat section and nozzle are recorded. The effect of each parameter on the pump performance is investigated, in order to have a better understanding about the behavior of such pump under various conditions.

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  • Effect of chevron nozzle penetration on aero-acoustic ...

    The SPL contours show relatively higher levels along the jet edge, which appear to be confined 2 to 10 diameters from the exit plane of the base nozzle and 2 to 8 diameters for the chevron nozzles. The noise levels in these regions are in the range of 100–104 dB for the base nozzle, which apparently decreases for chevron nozzles in order of ...

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  • A Parametric Study of a Multi-Slot Air Knife for Coating ...

    for the proposed multi-slot jet air knife on final coating thickness have not been determined. The current research focuses on determining effect of the operating conditions of the multi-slot jet on the final coating weight. In this study, the conventional single slot jet geometry was used as a base

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  • Structure Optimization and Numerical Simulation of Nozzle ...

    Three kinds of nozzles normally used in industrial production are numerically simulated, and the structure of nozzle with the best jetting performance out of the three nozzles is optimized. The R 90 nozzle displays the most optimal jetting properties, including the smooth transition of the nozzle’s inner surface. Simulation results of all sample nozzles in this study show that the helix ...

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  • The Mechanism of the Air-Jet Texturing: The Role of ...

    A comprehensive review of the roles played by the airflow, wetting and spin finish on the air-jet texturing process is given. The results of an experimental investigation of the air-jet texturing process using residual spin finish, yarn-to-yarn static and kinetic friction, filament strength, filament diameter, and on-line tension measurements and high-speed cine-photography are reported.

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  • Effect of Pouring Conditions and Gating System Design on ...

    pouring time, and the addition of a nozzle extension sig-nificantly reduces the air entrainment. In addition, using an offset pouring basin with a stopper and pressurizing the gating system further reduces the volume of entrained air. Simulation results also show that the generation of vortex

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  • Effect of Geometry of Pressure-Swirl Duplex Nozzle and ALR ...

    Modern engines employ different geometrically designed nozzles. It is crucial to characterize the effect of the internal geometry of the nozzle and ALR on atomization characteristics. In this study, the effects of geometric parameters of the pressure-swirl duplex nozzle and ALR on the spray characteristics of Jet A-1 fuel were investigated.

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  • STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF THE CAVITATING AND NON-CAVITATING ...

    To discuss the effect of the nozzle geometry at a different value of jet power, P jet, the exit jet velocity, V J, is needed for both, the cavitation number, and the jet dynamic power calculation. For that, the discharge coefficient of each used nozzle was determined by measuring the flow rate for each nozzle at different jet power (dif-

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  • Prechamber Hot Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean H /Air Mixtures ...

    the jet. More importantly, no studies have examined the effect of nozzle geometry and the effect of supersonic jets on ignition characteristics. Furthermore, combustion instability in gas engines under ultra-lean operation conditions has not been extensively discussed. Motivated by these, we developed an experiment that uses a dual

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  • Numerical investigation of the effect of geometry on the ...

    In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to determine the effects of area ratio, setback distance, mixing tube length, and shape of the driving nozzle on the performance of the jet pump. It was seen that major losses arise in the jet pump primarily due to an improper mixing of primary and secondary fluids and because of the ...

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  • Effects of pylon geometry on mixing enhancement in a ...

    The Pylon 1 geometry is designed to study the effect of reduction in effective blockage area on performance parameters. Since the formation of vortices are influenced by the slanted surfaces of the pylon, the Pylon 2 geometry is designed to accommodate additional slanted surfaces while maintaining a reduced effective blockage area.

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  • Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Jet Flow in a Pelton ...

    The characterization of flow through Pelton hydro turbines allows the optimization of their operation and maximization of energy performance. The flow in the injector of Pelton turbines and in the free jet area (the area from the injector outlet surface to the runner bucket inlet surface) is influenced by several parameters: the geometry of injector components (nozzle and injector spear), the ...

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  • Effect of Dual Fuel Nozzle Structures on Combustion Flow ...

    In the double swirl nozzle combustor, at mm, the profile of H 2 has two peaks and shows an M shape. The H 2 mole fraction decreases with increasing the axial distance, due to mixing with air and the combustion of fuel. And the radial space of the H 2 distribution becomes wider with increasing the axial distance, due to the swirling flow of the fuel. More uniform profiles of H 2 mole fraction ...

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  • Ejector Design Calculation.pdf

    Natural Resources Canada 2015; M154-82/2015E-PDF:1-2.. suppliers, SCCR calculations made easy panel design is conducted as a calculation of a water-air ejector on the Ejector Design Calculation Pdf .... by P Menegay · 1997 · Cited by 17 — etd.pdf (86.08Kb).

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  • Effect of Abrasive Concentration on Impact Performance of ...

    It has been found that the impact performance of water jets can be changed by its properties, which include pressure, additive, and mode of jet. Thus, an abrasive water jet (AWJ) has been developed as a new method. However, there is little research on the effect of abrasive concentration on the impact performance of abrasive jets. Thus, the SPH method is used to establish an abrasive water jet ...

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  • Experimental Study of Air-Lift Pumps Characteristics

    the percentage of the distance between throat section and nozzle and the driving air pressure, suction head and also study the effect of each parameter on the air lift pump characteristics in order to have a better performance of such pump under various conditions. A certain geometry for air-lift pump designed and manufactured.

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  • MECHANISM AND PERFORMANCE OF CO 2 SNOW JET IN CO-AXIAL ...

    Mechanism and Performance of CO 2 Snow Jet in Co-Axial Type Injection Systems 251 The pressure-temperature diagram of the carbon dioxide is illustrated in Fig. 1. In the CO2 snow jet nozzle, the liquid carbon dioxide expands through the expansion orifice and the temperature is cooled down to below triple point (5.2atm, 216.8K) with Joule-

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  • Injector Geometry Effect on Plain Jet Airblast Atomisation ...

    Plain jet atomisation featuring coaxial air and fuel flows has been investigated to assess the injector geometry effect on the spray characteristics. Results from various flow conditions and atomiser configurations suggest that a prompt atomisation correlation that was evaluated for prefilming injectors can be applied to plain jet airblast ...

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  • Effect of Closure Characteristics of Annular Jet Mixed ...

    The nozzle designed by the author has a specific geometry and functions by connecting the annular jet and the nozzle cone when cross-flow injection is applied. This study highlighted in detail the physical process of the transition from the additional jet to the wall jet. The annular nozzle used in one paper [26] was designed with an active

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  • PAPER OPEN ACCESS Related content A review on nozzle wear ...

    A review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application H. Syazwani1, G. Mebrahitom, A. Azmir 1Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia . E-mail :[email protected], [email protected], [email protected] . Abstract.This paper discusses a review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining

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  • The near-field aerodynamic characteristics of hot high ...

    The area ratio and length of the baseline geometry were chosen to be similar to the propulsion nozzle of the BAE Systems Hawk jet trainer aircraft. A short (34.1 mm) parallel extension was added to the baseline nozzle geometry to minimise vena contracta effects and allow boundary layer recovery (final lip thickness was 1 mm).

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  • Characteristics of a supersonic elliptic jet

    The Reynolds numbers of the Mach 2 jet based on nozzle exit diameter are 7.12 × 10 5 and 16.6 × 10 5, respectively, for the minimum and maximum NPRs of 4 and 8 in the present investigation. The design Mach number of the elliptic nozzle is 2. After nozzle fabrication, it is essential to ensure whether the design Mach number is achieved.

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  • The effect of adjuvants on spray droplet size from ...

    A flat fan nozzle produces a flat liquid sheet, where the conical nozzle produces a circular sheet or cone-shaped spray that can be solid or hollow depending on the internal geometry of the nozzle. The Malvern Spraytech is used (Malvern, UK) for determining the droplet size distribution, a method based on laser diffraction.

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  • Formation of Residual Bubbles in Diesel Engine Nozzle and ...

    The method of combining experiment and numerical simulation was used to study the cavitation and gas backflow phenomena during nozzle off-flow stage and the influence of residual bubbles on the initial jet in the near field. An equal-size optical nozzle based on acrylic material is designed, and the injection process of the fuel nozzle is photographed using high-speed photography technology.

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  • Compression-lift aircraft - KOSHELEFF PATRICK ANDREW

    The Effect of Mach 2 instead of Mach 3. The air behind a shock wave always moves slower than ahead of it. That leads to interesting physics in the case of compression lift. The situation is viewed by an observer moving with the aircraft. The shock is fixed and the air streams through it. The air after the shock is at somewhat higher pressure.

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    Rolls-Royce is a pre-eminent engineering company focused on world-class power and propulsion systems.

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  • Technology challenges of stealth unmanned combat aerial ...

    For jet engines, nozzles with large aspect ratios, defined as nozzle exit width over height, show significant reductions in the IR signature when compared with circular nozzles due to pressure changes in the plume, as well as a more widespread plume, which increases the mixture with cold ambient air, decreasing the overall length of the plume ...

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  • Debriefs – The Debrief

    The F-22’s successor, the secret new fighter jet, came from the Next Generation Air Dominance program (NGAD) and its prototype is already up and running after only one year of design and development. The modestly funded NGAD program— costing the USAF 9 billion, a steal compared to the F-22s—hopes to have a functional replacement by 2030.

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  • Impact of Jet Reynolds Number and Feed Channel Geometry on ...

    the effect of inclination of an impinging air jet on heat transfer characteristics. Roy and Patel [7] studied the effect of jet angle impingement on local Nu and nozzle to target plane spacing at different Re. Ekkad et al [8] studied the effect of impinging jet angle ±45 on target surface by using transient liquid crystal

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  • Effect of scale size on a rocket engine with suddenly ...

    Recent analytical work by Bray indicates that single element, chemically reacting systems, e.g., H_2 ⇋ 2H, may suddenly freeze their composition at some point in a high speed nozzle and then remain at fixed composition throughout the remainder of the expansion. This sudden freezing or 'quenching' phenomenon was also apparent in some theoretical calculations reported by Hall et al. and has ...

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  • Effects of Fluidic Oscillator Nozzle Angle on the ...

    Results show that the exit fan angle has a significant effect on the average fluid fan angle. Initially, θ jet increases along with the fan angle up to (θ ≤ 70 deg); beyond which, θ jet eventually plateaus with further increase in θ. The jet oscillation frequency appears to be independent of nozzle configurations.

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  • EFFECT OF NOZZLE HOLE SIZE COUPLING WITH EXHAUST GAS RE ...

    EFFECT OF NOZZLE HOLE SIZE COUPLING WITH EXHAUST GAS RE-CIRCULATION ON THE ENGINE EMISSION PERFORMANCE BASED ON KH-ACT SPRAY MODEL by Liang ZHANG a, Zhixia HE b*, Qian WANG a, and Genmiao GUO a a School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China b Institute for Energy Research, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China Original scientific paper

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  • Microbubble Generation in a Confined Radial Jet

    The effects of varying geometry, ... radial jet formed between the inlet nozzle and a glass wall permitting visualisation of the cavitation occurrence. Figures 2 and 3 show typical plumes of the microbubbles ... air from above the free surface enhancing the dissolution process.

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  • Generating Particle Beams of Controlled Dimensions and ...

    nozzle expansions the method described by Peng Liu (1994) is used. In this ap- proach, the internal flow field upstream of the nozzle is calculated using a finite dif- ference method (Patankar 1980). Sonic flow is assumed at the nozzle exit plane. The free-jet flow field downstream of the nozzle is calculated using the method de-

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  • Hadi Winarto

    Hadi Winarto, RMIT International University Vietnam, Software Engineering Department, Emeritus. Studies Software Engineering, Computational Fluid Dynamics, and Aviation Safety. I have BE (Aeronautical) from Sydney Uni, M Eng Sc and Ph D from UNSW. I

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  • DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO-DIESEL INJECTOR NOZZLES VIA MEMS ...

    Micro-machined diesel injector nozzles have been designed, fabricated and used with commercially produced diesel injection systems in the study of spray dynamics. Such a system, properly designed, may improve spray behavior in DI diesel engines due to improved atomization and fuel-air mixing.

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  • The Effect of Crosswind Velocity on the Spray Drift of ...

    The current results show that the crosswind modifies the primary breakup mechanism from sheet breakup regime (i.e. thinning and fragmentation of the liquid sheet into ligaments) to bag breakup regime (i.e. the formation bags along the downstream side of liquid sheet) resulting in smaller drop sizes and an increased drift flux. ... This content ...

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