Effect of Nozzle Geometry on Air-Jet Texturing Performancea variety of

Just fill in the form below, click submit, you will get the price list, and we will contact you within one working day. Please also feel free to contact us via email or phone. (* is required).

  • Effect of Nozzle Geometry on the Space-Time Emission of ...

    2021-7-28 · The effect of small-sized conical reflectors on the screech emission of supersonic underexpanded jets was studied experimentally. The investigation focused on two closely spaced fully-expanded Mach numbers, 1.32 and 1.34, and included reflectors with four cone half angles, from 90 degrees to 60 degrees.

    Get Price
  • Effects of Nozzle Geometry on Air Flow Jet and

    2016-3-29 · The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of upstream geometry of the nozzle on the turbulence mixing and temperature distribution in still air large enclosed spaces. Prototype experiments were carried out with the JETs (Jet Environmental Techniques) existing nozzle geometry in a test room.

    Get Price
  • (PDF) The effect of nozzle geometry on the flow ...

    Results are presented of a wide-ranging investigation of geometry effects on the flow parameters and jet characteristics of nozzles with diameters between 120 and 170 mu m. Nozzles with circular ...

    Get Price
  • Effect of nozzle geometry on heat transfer characteristics ...

    Attalla and Salem [5] planned the conclusion of nozzle geometry on limited and middling warmth transmission circulation in free air jet impingement on a flat plate in the variety of 6000 ≤ Re ...

    Get Price
  • The effect of nozzle geometry on the flow characteristics ...

    2006-12-1 · Results are presented of a wide-ranging investigation of geometry effects on the flow parameters and jet characteristics of nozzles with diameters between 120 and 170 μm. Nozzles with circular cross-section and conical, cone-capillary and capillary axial designs were investigated.

    Get Price
  • Effect of axisymmetric sonic nozzle geometry on ...

    The effect of nozzle geometry on sonic line and characteristics of supersonic air jet was studied. Computational fluid dynamics was applied in this study. The axisymmetric nozzle geometries investigated were two different contour converging nozzles, two different conically converging sharp-edged nozzles and a sharp-edged orifice. The results show that the supersonic jet structure, sonic line ...

    Get Price
  • Performance Study of Nozzle Geometry on Heat Transfer ...

    relative to the jet temperature, and jet diameter [2, 3]. The geometry of the nozzle has considerable effect on the heat transfer between the impinging jet and the plate. The nozzle geometry ...

    Get Price
  • Effect of nozzle geometry on pressure drop in submerged

    2019-9-25 · Submerged gas injection into liquid leads to complex multiphase flow, in which nozzle geometries are crucial important for the operational expenditure in terms of pressure drop. The influence of the nozzle geometry on pressure drop between nozzle inlet and outlet has been experimentally studied for different gas flow rates and bath depths. Nozzles with circular, gear-like and four-leaf cross ...

    Get Price
  • Recent advances and challenges of abrasive jet machining ...

    2018-8-1 · Nozzle wear has a strong dependence on nozzle materials, its geometry, particles size, hardness, and flow rate. The trend of AJM development is a shift from macro to micro scale. Improvements in micro-machining resolution, process controlling and erosion prediction are current challenges facing AJM. Previous article.

    Get Price
  • The Mechanism of the Air-Jet Texturing: The Role of ...

    2006-2-1 · A comprehensive review of the roles played by the airflow, wetting and spin finish on the air-jet texturing process is given. The results of an experimental investigation of the air-jet texturing process using residual spin finish, yarn-to-yarn static and kinetic friction, filament strength, filament diameter, and on-line tension measurements and high-speed cine-photography are reported.

    Get Price
  • The Effect of Nozzle Geometry on Pressure Drop and Heat ...

    2009-8-24 · Whelan, BP, & Robinson, AJ. 'The Effect of Nozzle Geometry on Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer to Free Surface Liquid Jet Arrays.' Proceedings of the ASME/JSME 2007 Thermal Engineering Heat Transfer Summer Conference collocated with the ASME 2007 InterPACK Conference.

    Get Price
  • (PDF) Effect of nozzle geometry on pressure drop and heat ...

    Effect of nozzle geometry on pressure drop and heat transfer in submerged jet arrays. Download. ... Influence of the shape of the nozzle on local heat transfer distribution between smooth flat surface and impinging air jet. By Vadiraj Katti. Single-Phase Microscale Jet Stagnation Point Heat Transfer. By Yoav Peles.

    Get Price
  • EFFECT OF NOZZLE GEOMETRY ON THE EFFICIENCY OF

    2016-7-19 · a stepped nozzle (Figure 1), a straight pipe, a converging-diverging nozzle (Figure 3) and an energy-efficient nozzle (Figure 4). The energy efficient nozzle is a combination of a stepped nozzle and a diverging part connected at the back. This geometry permits the surrounding air to be entrained. NOMENCLATURE

    Get Price
  • EFFECT OF NOZZLE GEOMETRY ON THE ATOMIZATION

    The nozzle aspect ratio has a more significant effect on the near-field jet stream characteristics for both fluids than the orifice inlet shape. Longer nozzles ( l d = 20) form more stable jet streams and delay the breakup of sheets, leading to greater breakup length than that attained with shorter nozzles ( l d = 5).

    Get Price
  • The effects of nozzle geometry on waterjet breakup at

    2003-9-2 · Note that, as mentioned by Lin and Reitz (), the above formulations do not take into account the effect of nozzle geometry.Recent studies by Hiroyasu (Hiroyasu et al. 1991; Hiroyasu 2000), Arai et al. and Tamaki et al. have shown that the nozzle geometry may have a significant impact on the characteristics of such flows.At a fixed injection pressure, waterjets can have a long intact length ...

    Get Price
  • Effect of Burner Geometry on the Blowout Limits of Jet ...

    1996-6-1 · The effects of changes in the jet nozzle geometry, i.e., nozzle shape and lip thickness, on the blowout limits of jet diffusion flames in a co-flowing air stream were experimentally investigated for a range of co-flow air stream velocities. Circular and elongated nozzles of different axes rations were employed.

    Get Price
  • Effect of Geometry of Pressure-Swirl Duplex Nozzle and

    2019-11-20 · Modern engines employ different geometrically designed nozzles. It is crucial to characterize the effect of the internal geometry of the nozzle and ALR on atomization characteristics. In this study, the effects of geometric parameters of the pressure-swirl duplex nozzle and ALR on the spray characteristics of Jet A-1 fuel were investigated.

    Get Price
  • Nozzle Length Effect on the Performance of the Jet-Driven ...

    2021-2-18 · Abstract— The excitation of pressure fluctuations in a model jet-driven Helmholtz oscillator is experimentally investigated. An axisymmetric channel consisted of a cylindrical chamber with a nozzle in the front cover and an outlet opening in the back one. Optimal geometric dimensions of the chamber, nozzle, and outlet were chosen to achieve the greatest amplitude of the pressure fluctuations ...

    Get Price
  • Research on geometrical parameters effect of fan nozzle ...

    2018-10-19 · In order to determine the significance and importance order of the jet performance caused by fan nozzle's geometric parameters of aero-engine online cleaning equipment, the orthogonal experiment method, standard k–ɛ turbulence model and volume of fluid (VOF) two-phase flow algorithm are used to research the jet of fan nozzle. The sensitivity of nozzle contraction angle, nozzle area ratio ...

    Get Price
  • An experimental investigation into the effect of changes ...

    High velocity, impinging, air jets are commonly used for heating, cooling, drying etc., because of the high heat transfer coefficients which occur in the impingement region. To provide data for design, a variety of slot nozzles has been tested to determine the effect on heat transfer of both nozzle shape and slot width. A small heat flux meter was used to measure local values of the heat ...

    Get Price
  • Effect of Nozzle hole Geometry on a HSDI Diesel Engine

    the effects of nozzle hole geometry, injection pressure and EGR on the autoignition, combustion and engine-out emissions of a HSDI diesel engine. Smoke vs. NOx trade-off curves were generated for both the 430 VCO and 320 mini sac nozzles at one load and speed condition that is key to the operation of a diesel engine powering an HEV medium size ...

    Get Price
  • Performance Analysis and Geometrical Design of Spiral ...

    2021-4-19 · The structural parameter of spiral groove has a great influence to spiral-grooved thrust bearing. Unsuitable value of spiral groove will lead to the poor hydrodynamic performance of spiral-grooved thrust bearing, namely vibration, wear and impact contact. This study proposes a new computational model and conducts the performance analysis of spiral-grooved thrust bearing. Based …

    Get Price
  • Effect of nozzle geometry on the efficiency of compressed ...

    All nozzles showed comparable mass flow rates for the same impact force and the difference was in the order of 5% better than a straight pipe geometry. Only the energy saving nozzle used around 10% less mass flow and is the best solution to reduce compressed air consumption without losing performance. en_ZA. dc.description.librarian.

    Get Price
  • Nozzle geometry effects on supersonic jet interaction ...

    2012-5-17 · American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 12700 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 200 Reston, VA 20191-5807 703.264.7500

    Get Price
  • Experimental Study on Effects of Nozzle Hole Geometry on ...

    2009-11-2 · The effect of injection pressure was not significant at retarded injection timings, i.e., 5 ATDC. The convergent nozzle was found to produce higher soot emissions compared with the straight-hole nozzle under the same injection conditions. Effects of the convergent nozzle on NO x emissions and fuel consumption were not significant. The small ...

    Get Price
  • Effect of Dual Fuel Nozzle Structures on Combustion Flow ...

    2013-11-12 · In the double swirl nozzle combustor, at mm, the profile of H 2 has two peaks and shows an M shape. The H 2 mole fraction decreases with increasing the axial distance, due to mixing with air and the combustion of fuel. And the radial space of the H 2 distribution becomes wider with increasing the axial distance, due to the swirling flow of the fuel. More uniform profiles of H 2 mole fraction ...

    Get Price
  • Effects of axisymmetric sonic nozzle geometry on Mach

    2012-5-17 · Effect of axisymmetric sonic nozzle geometry on characteristics of supersonic air jet Journal of Thermal Science, Vol. 13, No. 2 An experimental study of underexpanded sonic, coaxial, swirl jets

    Get Price
  • Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research - 14.139.47.11

    Stress-strain characteristics of air-jet textured polyester yarns . R S Rengasamy, V K Kothari & Asis Patnaik [IPC Code: Int. Cl 7. D02G 3/22, D06H 3/00] 283. Migratory behaviour of core and sheath fibres in dref-III friction-spun acrylic yarns. S Dhamija, S Sambari & …

    Get Price
  • Effect of injection timing, injector opening pressure ...

    2016-2-6 · Increasing petroleum prices, increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions and global warming have generated intense international interest in developing renewable and alternative non-petroleum fuels for engines. Evolving feasible technology and recurring energy crisis necessitated a continued investigation into the search for sustainable and clean-burning renewable fuels. In ...

    Get Price
  • Experimental investigations of the effect of nozzle ...

    The paper deals with experimental investigations of a two-phase water-air ejector. The aim of research is to find out the influence of the ejector geometry on its performance. Particuler attention is paid to the influence of the nozzle geometry on the gas suction rate and the ejector efficiency.

    Get Price
  • Effect of nozzle geometry on the efficiency of compressed ...

    All nozzles showed comparable mass flow rates for the same impact force and the difference was in the order of 5% better than a straight pipe geometry. Only the energy saving nozzle used around 10% less mass flow and is the best solution to reduce compressed air consumption without losing performance.

    Get Price
  • EFFECT OF NOZZLE GEOMETRY ON THE ATOMIZATION

    The nozzle aspect ratio has a more significant effect on the near-field jet stream characteristics for both fluids than the orifice inlet shape. Longer nozzles ( l d = 20) form more stable jet streams and delay the breakup of sheets, leading to greater breakup length than that attained with shorter nozzles ( l d = 5).

    Get Price
  • 'Effects of Nozzle-Inlet Chamfering on Pressure Drop and ...

    The effect of changing the nozzle geometry on the pressure drop and local heat transfer distribution in confined air jet impingement on a small heat source was experimentally investigated. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements obtained with chamfered nozzles were compared to those obtained with a square-edged (non-chamfered) nozzle of the same diameter for different turbulent Reynolds ...

    Get Price
  • Effect of Nozzle hole Geometry on a HSDI Diesel Engine

    the effects of nozzle hole geometry, injection pressure and EGR on the autoignition, combustion and engine-out emissions of a HSDI diesel engine. Smoke vs. NOx trade-off curves were generated for both the 430 VCO and 320 mini sac nozzles at one load and speed condition that is key to the operation of a diesel engine powering an HEV medium size ...

    Get Price
  • Effects of elliptical burner geometry on partially ...

    This study is the investigation of the effect of elliptical nozzle burner geometry and partial premixing, both 'passive control' methods, on a hydrogen/hydrocarbon flame. Both laminar and turbulent flames for circular, 3:1, and 4:1 aspect ratio (AR) elliptical burners are considered. The amount of air mixed with the fuel is varied from fuel-lean premixed flames to fuel-rich partially premixed ...

    Get Price
  • Experimental investigations of the effect of nozzle ...

    The paper deals with experimental investigations of a two-phase water-air ejector. The aim of research is to find out the influence of the ejector geometry on its performance. Particuler attention is paid to the influence of the nozzle geometry on the gas suction rate and the ejector efficiency.

    Get Price
  • WO2004085722A1 - Texturing nozzle and method for

    The invention relates to a method for texturing a filament yarn by means of a texturing nozzle having a continuous yarn channel into which pressurized air of more than 4 bar is injected in the direction of yarn transport. At the outlet end, the yarn channel is enlarged at an enlargement angle of more than 10°, preferably in a conical manner, to produce a supersonic flow.

    Get Price
  • Influence of nozzle asymmetry on supersonic jets

    2012-5-17 · 27 January 2016 | The Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 118, No. 1209. Effects of area-ratio on the near-field flow characteristics and deflection of circular inclined coaxial jets. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 54. Effect of a tab on the aerodynamical development and noise of an underexpanded supersonic jet.

    Get Price
  • Leonardo ORAZI - personale UniMore - pubblicazioni

    The uniformity of the exit jet pattern in high pressure gas-assisted laser cutting represents the main feature in order to achieve high cutting quality and capability. Therefore, the effect of both inlet stagnation pressure and nozzle geometry on the behavior of the exit jet …

    Get Price
  • Effect of Abrasive Concentration on Impact Performance of ...

    It has been found that the impact performance of water jets can be changed by its properties, which include pressure, additive, and mode of jet. Thus, an abrasive water jet (AWJ) has been developed as a new method. However, there is little research on the effect of abrasive concentration on the impact performance of abrasive jets. Thus, the SPH method is used to establish an abrasive water jet ...

    Get Price
  • CIRP

    2021-8-28 · CAMJP makes use of a purposely designed multi-jet nozzle incorporated with a pressure control system. The effect of surface curvature on the MRR is analysed by computational fluid dynamic modelling. The fluid pressure of each jet is controlled independently to vary the MRR according to the curvature of freeform surfaces.

    Get Price
  • (PDF) [2000] Handbook of Weaving

    Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers.

    Get Price
  • CIRP

    2 天前 · Effect of flow characteristics on cutting forces, temperature, tool wear and geometric errors was examined in CFRP milling. Optimum AFR, OFR and nozzle distance from the cutting zone were established and compared to flood, pressurized air, and dry machining.

    Get Price
  • Frontiers

    2020-11-19 · Oil/water mixtures are a potentially major source of environmental pollution if efficient separation technology is not employed during processing. A large volume of oil/water mixtures is produced via many manufacturing operations in food, petrochemical, mining, and metal industries and can be exposed to water sources on a regular basis. To date, several techniques are used in practice …

    Get Price
  • CIRP

    2021-8-30 · Abstract : The effect of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment in conjunction with fine particle peening (FPP) on the generation of a TiO2 layer on pure titanium was investigated. Compared with the TiO2 layer generated using conventional FPP, the layer generated using plasma-assisted FPP was observed to have a uniform and thick surface.

    Get Price
  • A nanoparticle-mist deposition method: fabrication of high ...

    2021-5-19 · Qin, G. & Watanabe, A. Surface texturing of TiO 2 film by mist deposition of TiO 2 nanoparticles. Nano-Micro Lett. 5 , 129–134 (2013). CAS Article Google Scholar

    Get Price
  • 5 Technology

    2021-8-30 · The Silent Aircraft Initiative (2006) (SAX-40) was a £2.3 million three-year research project run by Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology—with input from industry and government. SAX-40 culminated in a …

    Get Price
  • Method for fluid jet formation Hashish, Mohamed A. ; et al ...

    A method and apparatus for controlling the coherence of a high-pressure fluid jet directed toward a selected surface. In one embodiment, the coherence is controlled by manipulating a turbulence level of the fluid forming the fluid jet. The turbulence level can be manipulated upstream or downstream of a nozzle orifice through which the fluid passes.

    Get Price
  • 442 Fundamentals of Machining Processes

    Figure 14.7 shows an inkjet nozzle fabricated by micro-EDM die sinking, while a variety of irregularly shaped microholes are shown in Figure 14.8. Micro-electrodischarge grinding (EDG), shown schematically in Figure 14.9, has been used to machine 600 mm long channels, 900 um deep and 60 um wide, with closed ends into both sides of stainless ...

    Get Price
  • CPC - Compilation of Changes to the Scheme

    2020-5-15 · component geometry (H05K 13/0812 takes precedence)} WARNING Group H05K 13/0813 is incomplete pending reclassification of documents from group H05K 13/08. Groups H05K 13/08 and H05K 13/0813 should be considered in order to perform a complete search. N H05K 13/0815 · · · {Controlling of component placement on the substrate during or after

    Get Price
  • ARPN :: Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (JEAS)

    2016-2-28 · Effect of surface texturing on hydrodynamic performance of journal bearings: Author (s): Shahab Hamdavi, H. H. Ya and TVVLN Rao: Abstract: The request to use hydrodynamic journal bearings in different industries consisting high speed and high load are commonly demanded. The necessary of improving its performance is a significant objective.

    Get Price
  • Steels for bearings - University of Cambridge

    2020-2-14 · A variety containing only 0.7C-13Cr wt% martensitic steel (13Cr-SS, Table 8) avoids the eutectic carbides and maintains the corrosion resistance. Steel ES1 is a further development based on a combination of carbon and nitrogen, and with an even greater capacity to resist corrosion, partly because of the alloying with nitrogen [ 289 , 350 ].

    Get Price
  • CIRP

    2 天前 · STC A. Fast and precise pick and place stacking of limp fuel cell components supported by artificial neural networks. Paul Bobka, Felix Gabriel, Klaus Droeder (2) STC A, 69/1/2020, P.1. Keywords: Machine learning, Fuel cell, Stacking. Abstract : The fast and precise automated assembly of limp components to large stacks is a technical challenge.

    Get Price
  • Transactions of the JSME (in Japanese)

    The offset jet is produced by the flow of air that issues from the end of a long parallel channel, and the offset ratio H/h (H: step height, h: channel height) is 1.0. The PA is operated by a continuous sinusoidal waveform with a voltage of 6 kV and frequency of 2.0 kHz applied to the actuator electrode.

    Get Price
  • KIT - wbk Institute of Production Science ...

    Homepage of Institute of Production Science (wbk) [ 4 ] Schulze, V.; Haupt, S. & Weber, P. (2009), 'Hybrid machining of microstructures using a combination of electricaldischarge machining milling and laser ablation', Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B (JVST B) - Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, vol. 27, pp. 1327-1329. Abstract

    Get Price
  • The art of laser ablation in aeroengine: The crown jewel ...

    2020-2-25 · According to specific manufacturing applications, reasonable combinations of laser ablation parameters could be developed to realize the desired processing effect. There are a variety of lasers, such as excimer lasers, Nd:YAG, fiber, CO 2, and other solid-state lasers, that can be adopted for laser processing. Both pulsed and continuous wave ...

    Get Price
  • Method for fluid jet formation Hashish, Mohamed A. ; et al ...

    A method and apparatus for controlling the coherence of a high-pressure fluid jet directed toward a selected surface. In one embodiment, the coherence is controlled by manipulating a turbulence level of the fluid forming the fluid jet. The turbulence level can be manipulated upstream or downstream of a nozzle orifice through which the fluid passes.

    Get Price
  • 442 Fundamentals of Machining Processes

    Figure 14.7 shows an inkjet nozzle fabricated by micro-EDM die sinking, while a variety of irregularly shaped microholes are shown in Figure 14.8. Micro-electrodischarge grinding (EDG), shown schematically in Figure 14.9, has been used to machine 600 mm long channels, 900 um deep and 60 um wide, with closed ends into both sides of stainless ...

    Get Price
  • 5 Technology

    2021-8-30 · The Silent Aircraft Initiative (2006) (SAX-40) was a £2.3 million three-year research project run by Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology—with input from industry and government. SAX-40 culminated in a …

    Get Price
  • EFFECT OF FUEL INJECTOR HOLE DIAMETER AND

    2017-11-1 · 3.1 Effect of nozzle-hole diameter and fuel injection timing on in-cylinder pressure Figure 4(a) shows the comparison of in-cylinder pressures at various fuel injector nozzle-hole diameters, at the SOI of 605 CAD. From Fig. 4(a), it is seen that, as the nozzle-hole diameter

    Get Price
  • Experimental Evaluation of a Translating Nozzle Sidewall ...

    2020-8-6 · The test results showed that the moveable nozzle wall is a viable and efficient means to effectively control the flow capacity of a radial turbine. Peak efficiencies of the second turbine with and without nozzle coolant were 86.5 and 88 percent respec- tively. These values are comparable to pivoting vane variable geometry turbines: how-

    Get Price
  • Liquid jet nozzles, mixing nozzles, tank mixing systems ...

    The whole simulated geometry consisting of all liquid jet mixing nozzles and the tank with pump connection is converted to a calculation grid by means of a so-called grid generator which is the basis of the CFD. The fluidic fundamental equations are solved for each …

    Get Price
  • Effect of Nozzle Length on Breakup Length of Liquid Jet ...

    Furthermore, one has to point out that the stability of jets may be influenced by the turbulence in the nozzle and the velocity profile. This work presents the experimental result about the effect of the nozzle length on the breakup length of liquid jets in the air and in the immiscible liquid, as the beginning of a systematic investigation of the influence by these factors on the breakup of jet.

    Get Price
  • The effect of adjuvants on spray droplet size from ...

    2021-8-2 · A flat fan nozzle produces a flat liquid sheet, where the conical nozzle produces a circular sheet or cone-shaped spray that can be solid or hollow depending on the internal geometry of the nozzle. The Malvern Spraytech is used (Malvern, UK) for determining the droplet size distribution, a method based on laser diffraction.

    Get Price
  • Atomization of a Liquid Jet Under Swirling Air Stream

    1998-10-19 · 982612. The instability of a viscous liquid jet surrounded by a swirling air stream subject to a 3-D disturbance is predicted by a linear stability model. The effect of flow conditions, fluid properties and nozzle geometry on the disintegration of the liquid jet …

    Get Price
  • Effect of the Compressor Discharge Casing Geometry on ...

    2014-9-18 · Agarwal, KK, & Gori, S. 'Effect of the Compressor Discharge Casing Geometry on Combustor Exit Temperature Profiles in a Multi-Can Gas-Turbine Combustor.' Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2014: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition. Volume 4B: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions. Düsseldorf, Germany. June 16–20, 2014. V04BT04A010. ASME.

    Get Price
  • Review on Recent Advances in Pulse Detonation Engines

    Pulse detonation engines (PDEs) are new exciting propulsion technologies for future propulsion applications. The operating cycles of PDE consist of fuel-air mixture, combustion, blowdown, and purging. The combustion process in pulse detonation engine is the most important phenomenon as it produces reliable and repeatable detonation waves. The detonation wave initiation in detonation tube in ...

    Get Price
  • CIRP

    2021-8-30 · Abstract : The effect of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment in conjunction with fine particle peening (FPP) on the generation of a TiO2 layer on pure titanium was investigated. Compared with the TiO2 layer generated using conventional FPP, the layer generated using plasma-assisted FPP was observed to have a uniform and thick surface.

    Get Price
  • Transactions of the JSME (in Japanese)

    The offset jet is produced by the flow of air that issues from the end of a long parallel channel, and the offset ratio H/h (H: step height, h: channel height) is 1.0. The PA is operated by a continuous sinusoidal waveform with a voltage of 6 kV and frequency of 2.0 kHz applied to the actuator electrode.

    Get Price